Technique on driving of the hardware
The car is a bomb on wheels which does not blow up and does not get to accident only because we operate it. Very whimsical, fragile, choosy and awful device which does not forgive mistakes. Why principle number one: "The car – not luxury, and a vehicle". And only after you brought up in yourselves reliable brakes for own desires, turned fears into abilities and subordinated itself a fluent carriage of the not to mad will – here then the car besides means for self-affirmation and pleasure.
1. Governing bodies car
Coupling serves for:
• a smooth troganiye from a place;
• smooth stop;
• gear shiftings.
Coupling pedal – the most left. Work with it the left foot, all shin, at all this the heel is groundless. Quickly to press a pedal in a floor against the stop ("to squeeze out coupling") – coupling is switched off. Smoothly to release, holding with a foot (the pedal is pushed out by a spring) – coupling is included. When this pedal do not press, the left foot is put on a floor to the left of a pedal; more precisely – on an arch of the left wheel.
The pressing of a pedal of coupling disconnects disks of coupling which in a usual condition are densely pressed to each other and transfer rotation from a cranked shaft of the motor to a box. At the pressed pedal rotation is not transferred.
To throw a coupling pedal (to release sharply, without holding smoothly a foot) does not follow – coupling disks sharply densely incorporate and the car does sharp breakthrough forward, twitches.
1.3. A brake (to go more slowly)
Average pedal. With it work the right foot. Serves for delay of movement of the car or a full stop. Let’s spin to wheels. Pressing a brake at the included coupling can muffle a cursor as the cursor cannot turn the blocked wheels.
• when passing turn on high speed. You will block wheels – head over heels you will take off after the journey.
• when driving through poles, hummocks, ledges. If the wheel does not slide – it is possible to break a suspension bracket of wheels (the lever on a break instead of a kacheniye).
• over the holes filled with water, pools. One wheel does not concern the road, another – goes. Drift, capsizing.
• if the tyre burst. Тормознешь from a fright – you will go head over heels.
at 20-30 km/h, on the 3rd transfer squeeze out (switch off) coupling and only later brake, and that will decay a cursor
since high speed to 20-30 km/h we brake with the included coupling (certainly, it is necessary to stop to press on gas). It is called
"braking by a cursor". At all this it is necessary
to lower transfers if it is required only
to be slowed down, instead of completely тормознуть.
on the slippery road
• brake falteringly (pressed-released, a little
time), on the verge of blocking of wheels.
• brake without coupling shutdown, and that at
to blocking of wheels there will be a drift (wheels not
spin, and the car slides – and
we do not operate). In particular, if one wheel
brakes before another.
The morals are simple: "You go more silently – will be more long whole)".
1.4. Gas (to go quicker)
The most right pedal. With it too work the right foot (the foot cannot press to a descent gas and a brake – only in turn), at all this the heel of a foot stands on the floor.
At transfer of the right foot from a brake on gas and back the heel can stand on the floor (sock turn), and can come off a floor as it is more convenient. It is better, that the foot was transferred from gas on a brake and from a brake on gas by parallel transfer of foot, with a heel separation from a floor: it allows to cover all pedal time (that printsipno for a brake); not including if to operate with sock turn, there is a possibility to be hooked for pedal edge (to climb foot under a pedal), then is possibility to miss by a brake in a situation demanding critical braking (the gone crazy pedestrian on the road).
Serves for building of turns of the motor, and therefore – and speeds of the car. When driving a gas pedal more or less constantly hold the pressed. But it is no more, than on 1/2, 1/3, and is more often – absolutely a little. It is pedal quite sensitive to pressing.
Gas operates actually not in the speed, and in motor capacity. So, when driving uphill, gas is necessary for pressing more strongly, than when driving in an equal place; and downhill it is possible not to press practically at all as the car is dispersed under a bias at the expense of a body weight. Speeds, but, at all this will be identical.
Harmfully to press a gas pedal (to increase turns) at the disconnected coupling: it is more difficult to disks of coupling to make even speed if certain from them it is dispersed, and another – is not present. Therefore at first release a coupling pedal (and even put a foot on a floor), and only later press gas. And on the contrary – at first release gas, and only later squeeze out coupling.
Discrepancy is available that the right foot should hang over a pedal of gas and not press it even reflex while the left foot presses coupling into a floor. The pupil can delay a sock of the right foot on itself. This moment should be supervised meaningly while it did not reach automatism.
For movement delay happens for a start enough simply to stop to press on a gas pedal, to clean gas. But it is not necessary to release this pedal sharply: if there was a pressing 1/2 depths of a pedal, it is not necessary to throw a pedal simply sharply: the car will make breakthrough back, a sharp ubavleniye of a course. This same if the runner on complete run to shut a mouth and a nose – it will start to choke and will sharply reduce a course. It is harmful to a cursor.
In general, all pedals should be pressed smoothly (not including pedals of coupling which press sharply and against the stop), and to release smoothly (is sharply possible to release only a brake, well and, to be ready again to brake (for example, on a bias) – it is better to do it at moderate speed). The same about wheel rotation – twist it whenever possible more smoothly if incidents do not demand critical speed. Sharpness wears out the car and does dangerous situations.
1.5. Box and gear shifting lever
The box serves for transfer of rotation of a cranked shaft of the motor to the driveshaft (and further on wheels) with fall of speed of rotation in time. To each transfer there corresponds the range of speeds of the car.
• If on some transfer to go more slowly than small speed of a range (on some to the reason to be slowed down) – the cursor starts to "sneeze", the car twitches backwards-forward, and a cursor глохнет as cannot work at such low turns. Rescue from it squeezing of a pedal of coupling (and transition to lower transfer corresponding to new speed of movement) can.
• If to go on the highest gas – that a cursor it is overstrained; but quicker, than the biggest turns of the motor allow, all the same will not go. For acceleration of movement it is necessary to pass to the following transfer simply.
• And on the contrary if very to be dispersed (for example, under a hill), and transfer is small, the cursor cannot raise still turns, and starts to brake speed of movement of the car. It too is called "braking by a cursor".
Scheme of gear shifting by the handle:
1 3 5
2 4 R
The lever of gear shifting manipulate so: it is possible to cover a handle shishechka with a palm from above and to clasp fingers (a thumb to the right of a shishechka, the palm is turned down). But, it not the best way. It is better to hold the handle fingers.
For switching with N on 1, 1 on 2, 2 on 3, 3 on 2, 4 on 3 – we clasp the handle a palm on the right and slightly from below so that the shishechka appeared between a palm and a bolshushchy finger. We compress (a little) fingers later. The handle is pushed with "fork", the palm of the right hand is turned on is left and slightly up, the lever is enclosed in a palm, the thumb covers a lever shishechka strictly from above (the nail looks forward).
When switching N on 1, 1 on 2, it is necessary to press a palm on it is left, to hold the handle on it is left, that the lever under the influence of a spring did not leave on the right on a neutral groove (to a groove 3-N-4 transfers), and instead of 2 transfers by a case not to include 4.
Switching with 3 on 4 becomes with other addition of a palm: the palm develops "boat", being imposed on a lever shishechka at the left-from above, the thumb looks vertically down, the palm is turned to the right-down, the direct fingers closed together are bent vertically down. And this "G-shaped" """"" we pull the lever on ourselves, wringing out it to a descent slightly on the right (holding).
Gear shifting becomes at the squeezed-out coupling with a short pause in a neutral, into the account "time – two".
• Into the account of "times" – the handle in a neutral, a pause.
• Into the account "two" – the handle in suitable transfer, we release coupling.
The next moment is important – it is not necessary to detain a hand on the gear shifting lever. The meeting after inclusion of demanded transfer should clean the right hand from the lever and to return it on a wheel. To hold a wheel it is more important, than to hold (on forgetfulness) a hand on the lever. From an ubiraniye of a hand distracts need smoothly to release coupling by a foot, but here it is necessary to train coordination of movements.
At gear shifting it is not necessary to look eyes at the lever. Usually transfers are switched at situation change on the road: at traffic lights, at course delay (before a stopper), before turn – and during this moment it is more important to twist a wheel and eyes to estimate the road (for braking) than to check, where you turned the lever. Learn to get on suitable transfer to the touch. Not including what you узреешь, for example, at night???
For backing inclusion it is necessary to put the handle in the provision N of boundaries 3 and 4 to turn it in a position R later.
Before inclusion though what transfer first squeeze out against the stop a coupling pedal. At a troganiye from a place (1 transfer) – too. At backing inclusion – too. Without it it is possible to press on the lever to blue in the face, yet you will not break – but transfer all the same not to include.
1.6. An operating wheel
The wheel can do approximately on 22.5 complete revolutions in each direction, at all this wheels deviate approximately on 45 ° in each party. For car turn on 90 ° a wheel turn approximately on 90-135 °, and later доворачивают still approximately on 45-90 ° (or it is more, as required). After turn performance (or slightly earlier, before the termination) a wheel twist in the opposite direction before equal situation.
At the left on a wheel – the lever of the switch of indexes of turn (a povorotnik, a flasher). Down – left; up – right. Average situation – it is switched off. The index of turn gets the idea beforehand and is switched off after (instead of during time) maneuver performance. He gets the idea the straightened fingers of the left hand, in passing with wheel rotation. The left hand from a wheel does not act in film.
At big turns of a wheel in the opposite direction the index of turn is disconnected by the machine gun. About the included index of turn tells a blinking signal on an instrument guard.
Under the lever of the index of turn – the lever of light of headlights. Its provisions: a) it is switched off; б) passing beam; в) driving beam. But, for inclusion of headlights it is necessary to turn on still previously the toggle-switch on the dashboard; its inclusion gives a current on the switch of light of headlights and to a descent lights marker lights (thus, headlights cannot be included without marker lights).
On the right on a wheel – the screen wiper switch ("yard keepers", brushes). Its provisions:
а) it is switched off;
б) a pulse mode (time in 15-30 seconds);
2. Before a trip
• adjust a chair to itself – in comfortable landing guarantee of small fatigue, properly and indefatigable attention on the road. The handle forward-back – on the right under a chair; the handle of an inclination of a back – at the left;
• check rear-view mirrors (whether are brought down), in particular a salonny mirror – in it the back windscreen and the road behind it should be visible. In this mirror you need to look often when driving, in particular at various maneuvers;
• be fastened by a seat belt.
3. Motor start
• to squeeze out coupling;
• to put the lever on neutral transfer (you will not check – it is possible to go to a meeting after key turn, at once);
• it is possible to release a coupling pedal (and it is possible [but it is necessary] – to release to facilitate starter work);
• to turn a key on 180 ° clockwise: in this situation on candles there is a current, and at a working cursor there is an ignition;
• a key – on a starter, in other words to turn it for 45 ° clockwise (to hold least 2 seconds) – and the cursor was got;
• if at turn of a key heard a gnashing metal sound – to a meeting release a key. It "something not that" in a starter, release a key and try again after a pause. And that will break;
• a gas pedal a little to press to a descent with key turn; after the cursor was got, to take gas pair of seconds, let’s burn out pumped up by pedal pressing to fuel;
• to release a key, he will return to a position "ignition";
• (if held a coupling pedal – release it);
• to clean gas – idling;
If the cursor was not got from the 1st turn of a key, before the following attempt wait 4В5 for seconds.
The cursor by key turn counter-clockwise is switched off.
4. Troganiye from a place
• to include the left index of turn (the straightened fingers of the left hand, a wheel not to release) – the flasher blinks on is left, even if you wish to go absolutely directly;
• to squeeze out coupling (against the stop in a floor) – not to go to a meeting at transfer inclusion; not including that, at the included coupling transfer to include very hard, it is easier to break the lever;
• to include the 1st transfer (the lever from itself, forward);
• to remove from the hand brake: to pull the handle still up as for statement on brake, to press a bolshushchy finger the button – with the handle tense up it simply it is pressed – and at present the handle to push-turn down to a floor;
• to look on the parties and in a rear-view mirror; while somebody goes behind and/or at the left – wait better and pass them;
• to pass transport and to begin movement, in other words:
• a little to add to gas (average turns of the motor ~1500-2000 about minute.
• Smoothly priotpuskay a pedal of coupling and at the moment of a troganiye (a friction of disks the friend about the friend) to hold coupling (not to throw a pedal and to fix) approximately for 4 seconds and after that to start to add slightly gas (you will not add – the cursor can decay);
• to taxi a wheel in a true row;
• having levelled the car, to switch off a signal of the left turn (if it was not switched off itself and if you go to a meeting on a straight line – it will not be switched off!);
• to add to gas for dispersal in the following high-speed range (for transition to the 2nd transfer) is fast dispersal therefore here gas is necessary for adding safely should be.
It is meaningful to switch off fingers of the left hand a flasher, and the right foot to a descent to reap on gas and to disperse the car to 2 transfers. Dispersal with 1 on the 2nd transfer – small, but fast; for a long time to go by 1 transfer it is considered badly ("long dispersal").
• You will sharply release coupling – too there will be a breakthrough forward, at all this the motor (without having taken out a meeting and sharply brought loading) still can decay.
It concerns, certainly, not only a troganiye from a roadside, well and a troganiye at intersections: for example, at the moment of inclusion of a green traffic light.
5. Gear shifting
You were dispersed till speed limit for this transfer and got into the beginning of a range of speeds for the following transfer. Not to overstrain a cursor, it is necessary to be switched to the following transfer.
• to dump gas (quickly, but it is not sharp); the foot at all does not press on a pedal (check itself);
• to squeeze out coupling (against the stop in a floor);
• to include the handle suitable transfer (at all this shortly fixing the situation "neutral");
• smoothly to release coupling and to add gas (to release coupling smoothly, but quicker, than at a troganiye from a place as the car already is in movement and has inertia).
You will release coupling earlier, than it is necessary, or you will not squeeze out it absolutely – transfers will be switched with a crunch and a gnash, and gear wheels in a box will be beaten and will receive mass of agnails.
During gear shifting the car slides by inertia (after all coupling is disconnected) and slows down the course. Therefore printsipno at first to disperse the car till the speed entering into a range of new transfer, and during movement with the squeezed-out coupling not to lose speed so that it appeared below small speed, admissible for new transfer. On another: for what we want to include the following transfer when speed of the car any more does not allow to include it? – very much копотливо. Therefore transfers are necessary to manage for switching besides quickly.
And when braking (with the squeezed-out coupling) it is necessary to include eventually that transfer which corresponds to new speed of the car.
Delay of transfers can be necessary for passing of turns and intersections (with though what transfer brake to the 2nd). You go more silently – you see more; and there is more than time for thoughts and reaction.
At a troganiye from a place from 1 transfer to 2 it is necessary to do dispersal very quickly. In other words, having begun movement on 1 transfer, it follows to strike very much (but it is short) to gas (dared!) (to 15-20 km/h), to release gas, immediately to squeeze out coupling, to switch the handle 1 on 2, and to release coupling. This dispersal should be quite sharp, smooth and careful pressing gas avtoindent.ru leave for faster high-speed ranges when the car moves already quickly and is more sensitive to gas. The purpose of fast dispersal – to begin movement on more or less applicable speed somewhat quicker; if you is smoothly and to be dispersed carefully with 1 on the 2nd transfer at a troganiye from a place at an intersection – you will brake all going after you. It already actually is called "зазевался".
6. A stop at the sidewalk or a roadside
The full stop can be created with though what program, without lowering previously transfer on the lowest.
• to include the right index of turn even if you go on the last right row along the sidewalk;
• completely to clean gas – to lower speed; to choose a mooring place to the sidewalk;
• to reconstruct the car to a roadside; more accurately: you will touch on the right – you will call in on the sidewalk, or with a wheel you will touch about a border (so if to touch – that better on small speed); to level a wheel, movement on a straight line along the sidewalk;
• to brake, speed is lost;
• that the cursor did not decay – to squeeze out coupling (as speed fell to not rather admissible for the current transfer, or slightly in advance);
• (actually at first squeeze out coupling and late start to brake smoothly, and at all this still a wheel direct the car to the sidewalk);
• also we stop the car, in other words we brake a brake. It is not necessary to press sharply on a brake! It is necessary to press and wait. Does not suffice – to add pressing.
• after a full stop: to be switched to neutral transfer (that it was possible to clean a foot from coupling);
• to put on the hand brake (bench hammer), in other words to lift its handle up (that it was possible to clean a foot from a brake, and the car did not sweep under a bias); the respective crash a hrapovichka should be distributed. The lever is simple for taking a palm in a grasp, the button not to press; the lever to pull up with some effort, for fixing of blocks;
• to remove feet from pedals;
• to switch off the turn index;
• if it is necessary – to switch off a key ignition (counter-clockwise).
• from time to time on parking (in particular on a bias) include besides the 1st transfer at the switched-off cursor; that if wheels will sweep, they should turn besides a cursor, and it is heavy. But it is direct because when parking there can be included a transfer, before turning on of the motor it is necessary to put the gear shifting handle in a neutral.
• in twilight include marker lights that into you did not run.
• the ignition key carry away with itself, doors lock.